SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The overall index for CPI rose 1.8 per cent to 116.9 in December 2016 from 114.8 in the corresponding month of the preceding year. The increase in the indices for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (+3.7 per cent) and Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+2.1 per cent) were offset by the decrease in the indices of Communication by 2.6 per cent, Transport (-0.6 per cent) and Clothing & Footwear (-0.5 per cent) (Table 1).
Chart 1: Consumer Price Index: Index Number for Overall and Selected Main Groups
The index of transport group showed a smaller decline of 0.6 per cent on year-on-year basis in December 2016 after falling 1.5 per cent in November 2016 and 5.5 per cent in October 2016. The average price of 1 litre of RON95 petrol was RM1.90 in December 2016 compared to RM1.95 in December 2015. As for RON97, the average price declined to RM2.25 in December 2016 from RM2.30 in November 2016. However, the price of RON97 in December 2016 was lower than in December 2015.
The index for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages increased 3.7 per cent in December 2016. The increase was fuelled by food sub-group which encapsulated of Oils & Fats (+36.9 per cent); Fish & Seafood (+5.6 per cent); Vegetables (+4.8 per cent) and Meat (+3.0 per cent). As for Food Away From Home index, it continued to rise in December 2016 and showed an increase of 3.5 per cent.
Chart 2: Consumer Price Index: Annual Percentage Change for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages
Among the index of food items which recorded notable increases in December 2016 compared to the same period last year were Cooking Oil (+45.9 per cent); Cuttlefish (+16.5 per cent); Prawn (+7.2 per cent); Spanish Mackerel (Fish) (+5.7 per cent); Indian Mackerel (Fish) (+5.4 per cent); Red Snapper (Fish) (+4.2 per cent) and Chicken (+2.9 per cent). Meanwhile, decreases were registered in the index of some food items such as Shallots (-12.9 per cent); Tomatoes (-11.1 per cent) and Onions, Big (-8.8 per cent).
The index for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages recorded an increase higher than the rate of overall CPI. The increase in the index for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages was reflected in each state in Malaysia especially those in highly urbanised states such as Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Selangor & Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya, Pulau Pinang, Johor and also Melaka.
Chart 3: Consumer Price Index: Annual Percentage Change for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages by State
Six states recorded higher increases for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages index above the national level index for December 2016 compared to the corresponding month in 2015. The index for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages rose 5.2 per cent in Melaka, 4.7 per cent in Johor, 4.6 per cent in Pulau Pinang, 3.9 per cent in Selangor & Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya, 3.8 per cent in Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur and 3.8 per cent in Negeri Sembilan.
On a monthly basis, the index for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages increased 0.6 per cent in December 2016 following an increase of 1.0 per cent in November 2016. Meanwhile, the index for Non-Food recorded a decrease of 0.3 per cent in December 2016 compared with the preceding month.
Based on a seasonally adjusted term, the overall CPI for December 2016 remained unchanged at 116.9 as compared to November 2016 (Table 1).
Core inflation rose 2.1 per cent in December 2016 compared to the same month of the previous year. Among the major groups which influenced the higher core rate were price increases for Transport (+3.4 per cent); Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (+3.4 per cent); Recreation Services & Culture (+3.3 per cent); Health (+2.4 per cent) and Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels (+2.4 per cent) (Table 3).
CPI changes for the period January - December 2016 / 2015
CPI for the period January to December 2016 registered an increase of 2.1 per cent as compared to the same period last year. The index for Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages was the main upward contributor to the CPI rise in the period January – December 2016, registered an increase of 3.9 per cent.
The increase was the result of increases in the index for Food At Home (+4.0 per cent); Food Away From Home (+3.8 per cent) and Coffee, Tea, Cocoa & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (+1.2 per cent). Among the subgroups of Food At Home which showed significant increases during this period as shown in Table 2 were Vegetables (+6.5 per cent); Oils & Fats (+6.5 per cent); Fish & Seafood (+6.3 per cent); Fruits (+4.8 per cent) and Meat (+3.7 per cent).
The index for Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas & Other Fuels rose 2.4 per cent. Other major groups which contributing to the CPI rise during this period were Alcoholic Beverages & Tobacco (+17.2 per cent); Miscellaneous Goods & Services (+2.9 per cent); Restaurants & Hotels (+2.8 per cent) and Health (+2.7 per cent). The increases however were partly offset by Transport group which registered a decrease of 4.6 per cent due to lower prices for petrol.
Core inflation, which excludes most volatile items of fresh food, as well as administered prices of goods and services records changes ranging from 2.0 per cent to 3.6 per cent in the period January - December 2016 compared to the same period of the previous year.
Table 1: Consumer Price Index for Main Groups, Malaysia (2010=100)
Table 2: Consumer Price Index for Sub-Groups of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages, Malaysia (2010=100)
Table 3: Headline CPI and Core Index by Main Groups, Malaysia (2010=100)
THE OFFICE OF CHIEF STATISTICIAN MALAYSIA
DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS, MALAYSIA
18 January 2017
Ho Mei Kei
Public Relation Officer
Corporate and User Services Division
Department of Statistics, Malaysia
Tel : +603-8885 7942
Fax : +603-8888 9248
Email : mkho[at]stats.gov.my