This refers to gross emoluments paid to employees during the reference year, inclusive of salaries, wages, bonuses, commission, overtime pay, dismissal pay and allowances before deduction of employees’ contribution to Employees' Provident Fund (EPF), Social Security Schemes or any other deductions. Allowances to working proprietors, working partners and unpaid family workers are not included.
This refers to gross emoluments paid to employees during 2010, inclusive of salaries, wages, bonuses, commission, overtime pay and other allowances before deduction of employees contribution to social security schemes, EPF, income tax, insurance or any other deductions.
Sales price should be net of discounts, rebates and similar allowances granted, but should include the value of goods traded in or bartered as part of the sale
A stratified two-staged sample design is adopted, that is:
Primary strata: Made up of the states in Malaysia; and
Secondary strata: Made up of the urban and rural strata.
Two-stage sample selections are implemented and samples are drawn randomly. The first stage units of sample selection are the EBs while the second stage units are the LQs within the EBs. All households and persons within the selected LQs are canvassed. At every stage of selection, the units are selected systematically with equal probability within each level of the secondary strata.
The sample size for this survey is required to represent overall population at the fixed level of analysis. this sample size has accounted for the element as follows:
(i) Findings from the previous survey;
(ii) Level of sampling desing; and
(iii) Desired error.
To finalize the sample size, cost, time and human resources are the factors that are taken into consideration.
Sampling errors is a result of estimating data based on probability sampling. This errors can be measured by estimating the Relative Standard Errors and expressed as a percentage. It is used as an indicator of the precision of the estimated parameter studied. This estimate reflects the level of variation was estimated through a survey variables compared with the population parameter.
For instance, in HIS & BA 2014, the mean monthly gross household income for Malaysia was RM6,141 with RSE of 0.4 per cent. In Other words, the standard error (SE) is approximately RM25. Based on a 95 per cent confidence level (Ã¡ = 0.05), the mean monthly gross household income was found to be in the range of RM6,092 - RM6,189 per month.
The frame used for the selection of sample for LFS 2014 is based on the Household Sampling Frame which is made up of enumeration blocks (EBs) created for the 2010 Population and Housing Census that was updated from time to times.
A method of disposing of solid wastes on land without creating nuisances or hazards to public health or the environment. Using the principles of engineering the solid waste is confined to the smallest practical area, reduced to the smallest practical volume and covered with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each day's operation (daily cover), or at more frequent intervals as may be necessary.
Saving represents that part of disposable income (adjusted for the change in pension entitlements) that is not spent on final consumption goods and services).
Defined as toxic waste and hazardous generated by industries, agriculture,workshop,scheduled waste contractor,domestic activities and clinical wastes from hospitals. The waste category listed in the First Schedule Environmental Quality Regulation (Scheduled Waste) 2005.
The data are disseminated annually in a non-seasonally-adjusted format
Time-series data are very useful for economists, policy & decision maker and time-series analysts to identify the important features of economic series such as direction, turning point and consistency between other economic indicator. Sometimes this feature is difficult to observe because of seasonal movements. Thus,if the seasonal effect can be removed, the behaviour of the series would be better viewed. The estimation and removal of the seasonal effects is called seasonal adjustment.
Seasonal adjustment is a process to identify and to remove the regular within-a-year seasonal pattern, which may also include the influences of moving holidays and working/trading days effect in each period. The ultimate objective of the process is to highlight the underlying trends and shot-term movements in the series.
In Malaysia,most of the time series data are affected by seasonally effects. Hence, to eliminate the seasonal effect as well as to seasonally adjust the Malaysia economic time series data, a standard seasonal adjustment package, X-12 ARIMA wasused by Department of Statistics, Malaysia.
Malaysia economic time series data are often affected by major religious festivals such as Eid-ul Fitr of the Muslims, Chinese New Year of the Chinese and Deepavali of the Indians. These festivals' dates are fixed according to the lunar year but vary according to the Gregorian calendar. Therefore, to estimate and remove moving holiday effect from time-series data, a procedure wasdeveloped, namely Seasonal Adjustment for Malaysia (SEAM).
The SEAM method is used to remove seasonal effect for Malaysia's merchandise external trade data. The seasonal adjustment is carried out on monthly total export and total imports. The seasonally adjusted series data for the preceding three years are revised each year when the figures for complete 12 months become available.